Fundamental interactions (physics)
It is a translation of article "Фундаментальные взаимодействия" by Vladimir Gorunovich. The translation was made using Google's online translator.
Contents
1 Fundamental interactions existing in nature
1.1 Electromagnetic interactions
1.2 Gravitational interactions
2 Fictional fundamental interactions
2.1 Strong interaction - fantastic interaction of fairy quarks
2.2 Weak Interaction
2.3 Electromagnetic Interaction
2.4 Electroweak interaction - the fifth fabulous fundamental interaction
3 Fundamental interactions within the framework of quantum theory
4 Creation of a unified theory of fundamental interactions
5 Fundamental interactions in nature - Outcome
By fundamental interactions in the microworld are understood qualitatively different types of interaction of elementary particles.
1 Fundamental interactions existing in nature
Studying the structure of matter, the presence and interaction of physical fields, physics experimentally established the existence in nature of the following two types of fundamental interactions and their physical fields:
Electromagnetic interactions (electromagnetic fields)
Gravitational interactions (gravitational fields of elementary particles)
These fundamental interactions have corresponding fields, so their existence cannot be disputed. All other interactions that really exist in nature must be reduced to these two types of fundamental interactions.
The assertions of some abstract theoretical constructions that "today the existence of four fundamental interactions (excluding the Higgs field)" is known reliably "have no evidence - they give us what we want for the observed. To invent any beautiful "theory" fashionable, to draw on the computer delicious pictures that excite the imagination, but until there is no experimental evidence - this will remain a mathematical hypothesis, or a mathematical tale. And the Higgs fields are also NO in nature, and the mass of elementary particles of the matter of the Universe is not created by this fairy-tale field.
1.1 Electromagnetic interactions
Electromagnetic interactions are one of the two types of fundamental interactions that exist in nature. Electromagnetic interactions exist between particles that have electric fields or magnetic fields, both constant and variable, as constant fields of electric charges and magnetic moments, and dipole ones. Electromagnetic interactions between the participating particles are realized only by means of electromagnetic fields.
The electric interaction of electric fields of charged particles is distinguished by its long-range character - the interaction force between the two charges falls off as the second degree of distance. By the same law, gravitational interaction decreases with distance.
The magnetic interaction of the magnetic fields of elementary particles possessing a magnetic moment is characterized by its short-range nature: the interaction force between two magnetic moments in the far field (at distances considerably exceeding the dimensions of the elementary particle) decreases like a third degree of distance.
The electric interaction of the electric dipole fields of neutral elementary particles that do not have an electric charge but possesses a dipole electric field is characterized by its short-range nature: the interaction force between two dipole electric moments in the far field (at distances considerably exceeding the dimensions of the elementary particle) falls off as a third degree of distance. By the same law, the magnetic interaction decreases with distance.
The magnetic interaction of magnetic dipole fields of neutral elementary particles possessing a magnetic dipole moment is characterized by its particularly short-range character: the interaction force between two dipole magnetic moments in the far field (at distances considerably exceeding the dimensions of the elementary particle) decreases like the fourth power of the distance.
Electromagnetic interactions of elementary particles are much stronger than gravitational, but their intensity depends not only on the magnitude of charges and currents, but also on the size of the participating particles.
Electromagnetic interactions are described by classical electrodynamics.
In electromagnetic interactions, objects with at least one of the following components can participate:
electric charge,
an electric dipole field,
magnetic moment,
magnetic dipole field,
variable electromagnetic field.
These are all of the known elementary particles, so the statement that the electronic neutrino does not participate in electromagnetic interactions - NOT true.
1.2 Gravitational interactions
In the 20th century it was believed that the Gravitational interaction is a universal fundamental interaction between all material bodies. But since physics has established the structure of material bodies and the nature of gravity, our knowledge of gravity in the early 21st century has changed significantly.
Gravitational interactions are understood as interactions of vector gravitational fields of elementary particles of matter of the Universe. The previous understanding of gravity and the mathematical tales of the 20th century associated with gravity remain in the past. In nature, there is not a gravitational field of an abstract substance of mass m, but is a superposition of vector gravitational fields created by elementary particles of matter that depend not only on the mass of elementary particles of gravity sources, but also on the orientation of their spins, and the mathematics here is different. Therefore, any material substance, by the thermal motion of its atoms, creates gravitational waves in the surrounding space.
The nature of the gravitational properties of elementary particles and the propagation of gravitational fields in space is described in the Theory of Gravitation of Elementary Particles.
2 Fictional fundamental interactions
Since the mathematical models of the 20th century physics did not have enough existing interactions in nature, to describe the behavior of open elementary particles, they had to THINK missing.
2.1 Strong interaction - fantastic interaction of fairy quarks
First, a quote from the World Wikipedia: "Strong nuclear interaction (color interaction, nuclear interaction) is one of the four fundamental interactions in physics. In a strong interaction, quarks and gluons and particles composed of them, called hadrons (baryons and mesons) participate. It works in scales of the order of the size of the atomic nucleus and less, responsible for the connection between quarks in hadrons and for the attraction between nucleons (a variety of baryons - protons and neutrons) in nuclei."
There is a cheating in physics. In nature, there are nuclear interactions - this is a fact, and the rest is a fiction. To truly existing nuclear interaction (which can be reduced to a superposition of interactions of electromagnetic fields of elementary particles) fairy quarks with fantastic gluons are docked - they are trying to puff us up. In nature, no quarks were found and no gluons were found, and a pseudoscientific tale called “confinement” is a mockery of the laws of nature. Nobody has proved that baryons consist of fantastic quarks. For allegedly observed traces of fairy quarks, to us are trying to blow in the consequences of the wave alternating electromagnetic field of elementary particles. Well, a fabulous exchange of virtual particles is contrary to the laws of nature.
2.2 Weak Interaction
Quoting from the World Wikipedia "Weak nuclear interaction is a fundamental interaction that is responsible, in particular, for beta-decay processes of atomic nuclei and weak decays of elementary particles, as well as violations of the laws of conservation of spatial and combined parity in them.” This interaction is called weak, since the other two Interactions that are significant for nuclear physics and high-energy physics (strong and electromagnetic) are characterized by a much greater intensity, but it is much stronger than the fourth from the fundamental interactions, gravitational.
The weak interaction is short-range - it manifests itself at distances much smaller than the size of the atomic nucleus (the characteristic interaction radius is 2 · 10^{-18} m).
The vectors of the weak interaction are vector bosons W^{+}, W^{-} and Z^{0}. In this case, the interaction of the so-called charged weak currents and neutral weak currents is distinguished. The interaction of charged currents (with the participation of charged bosons W^{±}) leads to a change in the particle charges and the conversion of some leptons and quarks into other leptons and quarks. The interaction of neutral currents (with the participation of the neutral boson Z^{0}) does not change the charges of particles and translates leptons and quarks into the same particles."
And now it’s true. The physics still does not have proofs for the existence of weak interaction in nature - we are being pinned down in a mathematical TALE and want us to take it for granted.
The statement that the weak interaction is supposedly manifested at distances of 2 · 10 -18 m is a fairy tale. Elementary particles are not point objects-energy will be required to compress the electromagnetic fields of elementary particles. So the linear dimensions of a neutron (allegedly decaying in terms of a weak interaction) are two orders of magnitude higher than the characteristic interaction radius: is this: in one tiny section of a neutron, a weak interaction acts, and in neighboring areas no longer exists? The elementary particles known to physics with a nonzero rest mass have linear dimensions exceeding the characteristic radius of weak interaction, many significantly - then what and with what so "interacts".
The laws of nature therefore are laws, which exist objectively and work. And if something is violated, then this is NOT a law of nature, but some mathematical abstraction, which is Issued to us as the alleged law of nature.
The carriers of weak interaction in nature are NO - in nature there is a grouping of elementary particles with an integer spin: vector mesons, which are pinned to us as these carriers. Physics has already experimentally discovered about 10 such elementary particles, they possess properties characteristic of vector mesons. According to the field theory of elementary particles, the potential number of vector mesons is infinite - we are waiting for new interesting discoveries, outside the framework of the Standard Model.
There are no quarks in nature, and as for beta decays, according to the field theory of elementary particles, the basis of the mechanism of the decay of elementary particles is the desire of each elementary particle to go to a lower energy level (analogous to that observed in an atom and an atomic nucleus) or more accurately levels. It is limited by the laws of nature, the presence of other elementary particles and their energy levels, but this is already from the scientific discoveries of physics of the 21st century.
2.3 Electromagnetic Interaction
Quotation from the World Wikipedia "Electromagnetic interaction is one of the four fundamental interactions: an electromagnetic interaction exists between particles that have an electric charge” From the modern point of view, the electromagnetic interaction between charged particles is not carried out directly, but only by means of an electromagnetic field.
From the point of view of quantum field theory, the electromagnetic interaction is transferred by a massless boson-a photon (a particle that can be represented as a quantum excitation of an electromagnetic field). The photon itself does not possess an electric charge, but it can interact with other photons through the exchange of virtual electron-positron pairs.
Of the fundamental particles, electrically charged particles also participate in the electromagnetic interaction: quarks, electrons, muons, and tau lepton (from fermions), as well as charged gauge W^{±} bosons. The remaining fundamental particles of the Standard Model (all types of neutrinos, the Higgs boson and carriers of interactions: the gauge Z^{0}-boson, photon, gluons) are electrically neutral."
And now it’s true. Of the electromagnetic interactions existing in nature (see Section 1.1), only the electric interaction of the electric fields of charged particles, which differed in its long-range character, was suitable for the theoretical constructions being developed, in which the interaction force between the two charges falls off as the second degree of distance (exactly what was required Quantum “theory”). He was chosen, called an electromagnetic interaction, but forgot about the others. At the same time, we completely forgot about the interactions of the magnetic fields of elementary particles, and the Fairy Tale for the little ones turned out, but only the reality is different.
Why the interaction of the electric fields of elementary particles must necessarily be transferred, in violation of the laws of nature. The need for this from the side of the quantum "theory" is not a proof of the existence in nature of such a mechanism for the propagation of interactions. And the statement about the quantum excitation of the electromagnetic field is another mathematical tale. And no matter what mathematical tale they have written about the photon - the photon will still remain a single electromagnetic wave of the wave alternating electromagnetic field and remains electrically neutral . And for the interaction of electric fields of charged elementary particles, an electrically neutral photon can not answer in any way.
2.4 Electroweak interaction - the fifth fabulous fundamental interaction
Quotations from the World Wikipedia "The standard model of elementary particle physics describes electromagnetic interaction and weak interaction as different manifestations of a single electroweak interaction, the theory of which was developed by Glashow, A. Salam and S. Weinberg around 1968. For this work they received the Nobel Prize in Physics for the year 1979.
In elementary particle physics, electroweak interaction is a general description of two of the four fundamental interactions: weak interaction and electromagnetic interaction. Although these two interactions are very different at ordinary low energies, in theory they are represented as two different manifestations of one interaction. At energies above the unification energy (of the order of 100 GeV) they combine into a single electroweak interaction.
The theory of electroweak interaction is the unified (unified) theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions of quarks and leptons, created by the exchange of four particles-massless photons (electromagnetic) in the late sixties of the 20th century by S. Weinberg, S. Glashow, A. Salam Interaction) and heavy intermediate vector bosons (weak interaction). Moreover, the photon and the Z-boson are a superposition of the other two particles - B^{0} and W^{0}.
Mathematically, the union is carried out using the SU (2) × U (1) gauge group. The corresponding gauge bosons are the photon (electromagnetic interaction) and the W and Z bosons (weak interaction). In the Standard model, the gauge bosons of the weak interaction are massed because of the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry caused by the Higgs mechanism.
After the discovery of the Higgs boson, the Higgs field became known as the fifth fundamental interaction. In 2016, it was assumed that the fifth interaction may be due to a new particle, a protophobic X boson, which reacts only with electrons and neutrons, and is also a part of the dark sector of nature."
The reality is that in nature there is no electromagnetic interaction, but there are electromagnetic interactions, and these are different concepts. In nature, too, there is NO weak interaction - the physics has not established the existence of a corresponding physical field, we are simply pinned on the next mathematical TALE.
Erroneous decisions of the current composition of the Nobel Committee on Physics, unfortunately, have become commonplace. This is far from the last time that the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for a mathematical TALE.
The statement that the elementary particle PHOTON is a superposition of the other two particles B^{0} and W^{0} - bosons - is a swindle in physics. Mathematical TALES admits everything in the world, but physics has not established this.
Well, the Higgs mechanism is another mathematical TALE, for which the Nobel Prize for “physics” was also awarded. But only the theory of gravity of elementary particles has established a natural source of mass for elementary particles and a natural mechanism of its formation, which has nothing in common with the tale of the Higgs boson. - But this is already from the scientific discoveries of physics of the 21st century
3 Fundamental interactions within the framework of quantum theory
Quantum theory without proof asserts the existence of the following fundamental interactions:
∙ Strong nuclear interaction;
∙ Electromagnetic interaction
∙ Weak interaction
∙ Gravity
Really existing in nature, nuclear interactions were attributed to non-existent in nature quarks, performing a virtual exchange (in violation of the laws of nature) of non-existent gluons in nature.
From electromagnetic interactions, quantum theory takes into account only the interaction of the electric fields of charged particles, calling them electromagnetic interaction. The interactions of magnetic fields, whose existence in elementary particles have been proved experimentally, are simply ignored.
There is no weak interaction in nature.
This understanding of gravity, existing in it, gave rise to a tale about black holes.
But magnetic fields are much stronger than electric fields and have a short-range character. - But then for their account it is necessary to start using classical electrodynamics (instead of quantum electrodynamics) and the quantum theory will have to switch to the foundation of the field theory of elementary particles. And if we add to this the primacy of the law of conservation of energy and forget about virtual particles, the microworld will see it in a completely different way - it will not be a quantum world.
4 Creation of a unified theory of fundamental interactions
The first of the theories of interactions was the law of universal gravitation, derived by Isaac Newton and published in 1687 in the work "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy". Introduction in 1813 the concept of gravitational potential and the Poisson equation for the gravitational potential allowed us to investigate the gravitational field for an arbitrary distribution of matter. After that the law of universal gravitation began to be considered as the fundamental law of nature. But this was done long before the discovery by physics of the structure of matter and elementary particles.
The second of the theory of interactions was the theory of electromagnetism, created by Maxwell in 1863.
In 1915, Einstein formulated the general theory of relativity (GRT), which describes the gravitational field. In physics, the idea of constructing a unified theory of two fundamental interactions appeared, just as Maxwell managed to create a general description of electrical and magnetic phenomena. In the opinion of physicists, such a unified theory would unite gravity (GTR) and electromagnetism as particular manifestations of a single unified interaction.
During the first half of the 20th century, a number of physicists made numerous attempts to create such a theory on the basis of general relativity and Maxwell's electromagnetism theory, but these attempts did not yield a positive result, since the general theory of relativity and the theory of electromagnetism are essentially different. Gravitation (within the framework of general relativity) is described by the curvature of space-time, and in this sense the gravitational field is immaterial, while the electromagnetic field exhibits all the necessary attributes of matter. - Perhaps they built a future theory not on that foundation?
In the second half of the 20th century, the task of constructing a unified theory of fundamental interactions was significantly complicated by the introduction of hypothetical weak and strong interactions that did not exist in nature (but then the physics did not yet know about it), as well as the necessity of quantizing the theory. - Physics began to develop in a dead-end direction.
In 1967, Salam and Weinberg came up with the theory of electroweak interaction, combining (in their opinion) electromagnetism and hypothetical weak interactions. Later in 1973, the theory of a hypothetical strong interaction (quantum chromodynamics) was proposed. On their basis, a quark model was constructed, which was subsequently transformed into the Standard Model of elementary particles (taking leptons that did not fit into the quark model of elementary particles) describing (in its opinion) hypothetical electromagnetic, hypothetical weak and hypothetical strong interactions.
Thus, up to the present time, fundamental interactions have been described by two generally accepted theories: the general theory of relativity and the Standard Model. But their unification could not be achieved because of the difficulties (as it was thought) of creating a quantum theory of gravity. - Physics finally entered the quantum dead end, which should have happened. But to be generally accepted is not to be TRUE. The latter refers to the Standard Model - a model of fairy quarks, fantastic gluons and fabulous fundamental (strong and weak) interactions. The attempt to combine scientific theory with TALES leads to the degeneration of SCIENCE itself. Genuine SCIENCE is limited only by TRUTH, and mathematical TALES can assert everything that will come to their minds to their supporters and give out this fiction for reality. Invent everything is possible, but where at least one of which was found in the nature of a quark or a gluon (tales of supposedly detected should not be accepted), and how the particle can create mass in the universe if is a particle that lives less than 0.000001 seconds to create that does not have enough energy fusion of stars - in nature existed before the creation of the mass energy of the particle accelerator called the "Higgs boson", and when created by intelligent beings on the accelerator particle disintegrated mass of the universe has not disappeared. Mathematics is able to draw any, most delightful mathematical model, but only nature and its laws (such unloved by mathematical fairy tales) decide what to be. So we are witnessing an unceasing flow of mathematical fairy tales, hushing up genuine scientific data, and posing as the highest achievement of science. But something I do not remember that Alfred Nobel in his will permitted to give out awards in his name for MATHEMATICAL FAIRY TALES.
Today, in the 21st century, physics knows much more about the structure of matter and the elementary particles, and also about the errors of quantum "theory", and in the absence of fictional strong, weak and electroweak interactions. Physics of the 21st century has confirmed one of the GRT postulates that the gravitational and inertial forces are of the same nature, and that is the electromagnetism (see Gravitation theory of elementary particles, part 2), but it also found that the gravitational field of general relativity cannot be created elementary particles matter in the universe (gravitational field is the product of electromagnetism, and not some abstract notion of self, and the gravitational field of elementary particle cannot squeeze an electromagnetic field gave rise to the fabulous "black hole"), and Maxwell equations do not describe the single electromagnetic wave: PHOTON and injected charges and currents, which in the elementary particles is not, since the permanent electrical field and magnetic field of particles is DIPOLE. Quantum mechanics, which lost virtual particles and Quantum "theory" with its many mathematical tales, suffered no less. Today, the assertions of Quantum Mechanics can not be regarded by physics as an indisputable truth and need experimental proofs - thus Quantum Mechanics lost its former omnipotence in the physics of the 21st century.
5. Fundamental interactions in nature - Outcome
Physics, studying nature, experimentally established the existence in nature of only two types of fundamental interactions:
Electromagnetic interactions of electromagnetic fields of elementary particles of matter of the Universe,
Interactions of vector gravitational fields of elementary particles of matter of the Universe.
The introduction of the fabulous fifth fundamental interaction in 2016 has nothing in common with PHYSICS-SCIENCE.
Mathematical theories - TALES tried to rewrite them for themselves and add missing for fitting to experimental data, but the physics does not have proofs of their existence in nature. Mathematical theories can be composed as much as there are authors willing to do this - but the universe exists alone, and it does not care about us and the literary creativity of authors from science.
Thus, as at the beginning of the 20th century, now the forces known in nature still only boil down to two fundamental interactions. The existence of other types of fundamental interactions in nature is required to be proved - and not postulated.
Vladimir Gorunovich |