Elementary particles (physics)
It is article wire transfer ”Элементарная частица” by Vladimir Gorunovich.
I tried to do my best with this text. May be my English is not very good. When I had the possibility to improve my English text, I would replace it.
Elementary particles - is the smallest indivisible objects in a microcosm (in nuclear, nuclear and sub nuclear scale). Atoms and nuclear kernels consist of elementary particles. It is experimentally established that elementary particles simultaneously possess corpuscular and wave properties (wave-corpuscle dualism).
With the discovery of elementary particles, science (physics) wondered about their number and structure. While elementary particles were opened in the order of 10 - every elemental particle was considered to be truly elementary. Attempts were made to explain the structure of elementary particles starting from the electromagnetic field, but it was not possible to construct the field theory of elementary particles at once. Gradually, this direction of physics went into the shadows, and remained in the shadows until 2010 until the successful completion of some of the work that lasted more than a hundred years and led to the creation of a field theory of elementary particles and the construction of a scientific picture of the microworld.
In parallel in physics, work was done on the creation of quantum field theory, which came to the fore. The basis of the quantum theory is the statement that the interactions are discrete in nature and are transmitted with the help of carriers - quanta. But in reality only the photon and other elementary particles were discovered in nature. Therefore, as interaction carriers that do not exist in nature, the elementary particles themselves were chosen, to which the possibility of temporal existence was also attributed in the virtual state in violation of the law of conservation of energy. But since the existence of virtual particles is short-lived, it is impossible to prove or deny the given statement experimentally.
The quark model proposed in 1964 (later the Standard Model of Elementary Particles) asserts that elementary particles (participating in a hypothetical strong interaction) have a complex structure and consist of hypothetical quarks. As a mathematical justification for the quark hypothesis, a unitary symmetry was developed. But hypothetical quarks in free form were not found (in nature there is no fractional electric charge equal in magnitude to the charge of hypothetical quarks), and then the Standard Model had to invent a mechanism that prevents the appearance of quarks in a free form. To this end, hypothetical gluons (hypothetical carriers of the hypothetical strong interaction of hypothetical quarks, also not found in nature - since they did not have a place in the spectrum of elementary particles) were endowed with unique properties (confinement) - the ability to create other gluons during movement (no elementary particles has this capacity). It is clear that the law of conservation of energy - the fundamental law of nature again was ignored.
Despite the success of the Standard Model of Elementary Particles, work on the field theory of elementary particles did not stop. Progress in this direction began to take shape in the mid-1970s, when an attempt was made to combine the classics with the part of quantum mechanics that did not contradict it (it was necessary to sacrifice virtual particles that violated the law of conservation of energy). Thus, as a result of entering the quantum numbers, it was possible to obtain the correct spectrum of the ground states of elementary particles (including a photon, leptons without tau lepton, mesons, baryons, vector mesons). It became clear that this direction is promising. Further work, supported by the development of computer technology and the advent of computers that allow calculating the interaction of magnetic fields, led to a significant advancement of the field theory of elementary particles.
The field theory of the elementary particles, working within SCIENCE, leans on the base checked by PHYSICS:
- Classical electrodynamics,
- Quantum mechanics (without the virtual particles),
- Conservation laws - are the fundamental laws of physics.
In this is fundamental difference the scientific approaches used by the field theory of elementary particles - the true theory should strictly act within the framework of the laws of nature: this is what SCIENCE is. I had to drop some of the quantum numbers postulated by the Quantum theory and the Standard Model, due to lack of proof the existence conservation laws attributed by their supporters to the number of laws of physics.
Now the field theory of elementary particles describes the whole spectrum of elementary particles, in which naturally there was no place for fairy-taled: quarks, gluons, gravitons, gravitinos, neutralinos, partons, preons, .... In addition, the field theory explained the origin of the electrical charge of elementary particles and why it is quantized, the magnetic fields of elementary particles and what actually nuclear forces are. But the most important thing is that all laws of nature "again" act, including such a fundamental law of nature, unloved by quantum theory - the law of conservation of energy.
Let's sum up what was said:
1. Quantum theory, together with the Standard Model, asserts that each elementary particle participating in a hypothetical strong interaction (called a hadron) consists of quarks - but quarks (as well as gluons) have not been detected on accelerators and in general in nature, and the exchange of virtual particles is contrary to the laws of nature.
2. The field theory states that elementary particles (with a quantum number L> 0, whose existence for elementary particles is determined by the field theory) consist of a rotating polarized alternating electromagnetic field with a constant component. Such elementary particles should possess:
- constant electric field,
- constant magnetic field,
- wave variation electromagnetic field.
The presence of these fields for elementary particles with a nonzero rest mass, as well as the gravitational field (created by the electromagnetic fields of elementary particles), physics has confirmed experimentally for a number of elementary particles.
With electromagnetic fields, both constant and variable, we encounter at every step. The number of elementary particles is infinite and each elementary particle (with a quantum number L> 0) has an infinite number of excited states. Due to the presence of an alternating electromagnetic field, the elementary particles have wave properties. Thus the field theory of elementary particles is sees the microworld.
Elementary particle (with quantum number L>0) in the field theory.
The structure of the proton in the field theory: the cross section of its electromagnetic fields. Where E are vectors that create a constant electric field, H is the vector that creates a constant magnetic field, and yellow indicates the region of the alternating electromagnetic field./p>
As you can see, the field theory of elementary particles describes all elementary particles and explains their structure based on real electromagnetic fields existing in nature. Thus, the idea of my great predecessors is confirmed.
Today, physics is rapidly changing, despite the monopoly of the "truth" established by the Standard Model, and calling themselves scientific, but in reality simply earning on science, the media. Therefore, you should not blindly believe all that is printed in them and by the media. The flow of mathematical tales that swept the physics of the second half of the 20th century, and posing as the highest achievement of science in reality is an imitation of science: a set of beautiful pictures drawn on a computer, and abstruse theoretical constructions that is not correspond to reality. A genuine theory must strictly act within the framework of the laws of nature, or prove the infidelity of those - and not manipulate them.
2 Classification of elementary particles
2.1 Classification of elementary particles in the quantum theory
From the point of view of the quantum theory all elementary particles share on two classes :
- Fermions - elementary particles with semi whole spin;
- Bosons - elementary particles with whole spin.
Fundamental interactions (in the quantum theory)
|• Strong interaction
• Electromagnetic interaction
• Weak interaction
By kinds of interactions the quantum theory divides elementary particles into following groups :
- Hadrons - the elementary particles participating in all kinds of fundamental interactions;
- Leptons - fermions, participating in electromagnetic and weak interactions;
- Invariance bosons - is the photon, intermediate vector bosons and prospective carriers of interactions.
Elementary particles (from the point of view Standard model)
• u-quark • d-quark • s-quark • c-quark • b-quark • t-quark
• Electron • Positron • Muon • t-lepton • Neutrino
• Photons • W- и Z-bosons (Vector mesons)
|Till now aren’t found out
|| • Higgs boson
• Gluons (invariance bosons)
• Other hypothetical particles
Here are specified assumed, but not found in the nature: quarks, gluons, a graviton, a Higgs boson, but aren’t specified mesons and baryons as the quantum theory doesn’t consider the given elementary particles truly elementary. Besides vector mesons the quantum theory has carried a part to elementary particles as she considers that they are carriers of weak interaction (postulated by the quantum theory) is W - and Z-bosons. Vector mesons the quantum theory doesn’t consider other as elementary particles.
2.2 Classification of elementary particles in the field theory
From the point of view of the field theory of elementary particles all elementary particles share on groups on quantum number L underlying a spin. From an infinite set of possible values the spin is allocated only zero (L=1) as in this group mesons it is impossible to distinguish a neutral particle from an antiparticle.
All elementary particles can be broken into following basic groups :
- Vector mesons
Thus the number of baryons and vector mesons in the basic condition in the nature is infinite. The given classification breaks elementary particles on quantum number L.
Fragment of a range of ground states of the elementary particles
But except the ground (no excited) states the elementary particles have also excited states (which are usually historically called by resonances) according to quantization rules of a quantum number of V. These states possess other rest-mass, possess the spin differing on number, the multiple 1 (including spins can coincide, as at a muon and a tau-lepton).
The elementary particles: a fragment of a range of ground states and excited states (according to the field theory)
Weak interactions in the nature are not present, and degree of participation of elementary particles in nuclear forces is defined by quantum number L (the structure of elementary particles see) and energy concentrated in a constant magnetic field. With growth of quantum number L the percent of energy concentrated in a constant magnetic field of elementary particles grows, and also the size of weight of rest - hence, grows also degree of participation of a particle in “strong” interactions. So from four (assumed by the quantum theory) types of fundamental interactions in the nature really exists only two - electromagnetic and gravitational, as well as fields corresponding to them.
Fundamental interactions (in the nature)
|• Electromagnetic interactions
Thus electromagnetic interactions differ from the electromagnetic interaction considered by the quantum theory as electromagnetic interactions consider interactions not only electric but also magnetic fields.
3 Systematization of elementary particles
There is only one systematization of elementary particles and their excited states following of the field theory of elementary particles.
4 Weight at the elementary particles
According to a classical electrodynamics and a formula of the Einstein, and also the field theory elementary particles, the rest-mass of the elementary particle is defined as an equivalent of energy of its electromagnetic fields:
Where the definite integral is undertakes on all internal electromagnetic field of the elementary particle, E - an electric intensity, H - a magnetic intensity. Here all components of an internal electromagnetic field are considered: constant electric field, constant magnetic field, variation electromagnetic field. It will be coordinated with real-life in the nature fundamental interactions. Any fantastic Higgs boson does not create a rest-mass of the elementary particles and cannot create as he does not create their electromagnetic fields.
Having placed the elementary particle in an external electric or magnetic field (for example, a proton or a neutron in an atomic nucleus), we will change the size of energy of electromagnetic fields of the elementary particle, and consequently, and the size of its weight. Thus: the mass of the elementary particle depends on electromagnetic fields in which it is, and not just from the size of its traveling speed (as appears from an express relativity theory).
5 The radius of the elementary particles (determined by the field theory of the elementary particles)
The field theory of the elementary particles enters determination of field radius of the elementary particle (r0~) as average distance from the center of the elementary particle (with a quantum number of L>0) on which the variation electromagnetic field rotates :
L - is a main quantum number of the elementary particle;
ħ - is a Dirac constant;
m0~ - the weight concluded in a variation electromagnetic field of the elementary particle ;
c - is a light velocity.
Proton structure in the field theory (transverse section) (an E-constant electric field, an H-constant magnetic field, the variation electromagnetic field is marked in yellow color).
Electron structure in the field theory (transverse section)
Neutron structure in the field theory (transverse section)
Apparently from the presented drawings, electric fields of the elementary particles - are dipole.
On pictures the electron looks less proton, and actually the field radius of an electron in 600 times more proton (and neutron), therefore an electron cannot fall to an atomic nucleus in any way - the linear dimensions of an electron exceed the linear dimensions of any atomic nucleus (even the heaviest). The electron is not present in a neutron, and is created by an electromagnetic field in the course of disintegration of a neutron, it is natural together with the electronic antineutrino possessing still larger (than an electron) the sizes.
In m0~ only the part of size of a rest-mass of the elementary particle is concentrated :
m0 - is a rest-mass of the elementary particle,
m0 = - is a weight concluded in a constant electric and constant magnetic field of the elementary particle.
Radius of area of the space occupied by the elementary particle is defined as :
A radius more of the annular domain occupied by a variation electromagnetic field of the elementary particle was added to the size r0 ~. It is necessary to remember that the part of size of a rest-mass, the concentrated in constants (electric and magnetic) fields of the elementary particle is outside this area, according to laws of an electrodynamics.
6 Excited States of elementary particles
According to the field theory of elementary particles, elementary particles with quantum number L>0 can be in an excited state, different from the base by the presence of additional rotary moment (V) . Experimental physics has already opened a lot of States of elementary particles. The examples shown in the figures:
the muon subgroup
the PI-meson subgroup
the proton subgroup
7 Elementary particles and the gravitation theory of elementary particles
Introduced in 2015, the theory of gravitation elementary particles established a presence in the nature of electromagnetic form of gravity. It is necessary to clearly understand that in nature there is not the gravitational field of matter and gravitational fields of elementary particles of which this substance consists. This superposition of vector fields and they are formed according to the rules of vector addition.
Because the gravitational field of matter creates electromagnetic fields of elementary particles of which this substance consists of, the question arose about the nature of the inertial properties of matter.
In equation 137 gravitation theory of elementary particles it was found that the kinetic energy of the electromagnetic field of an elementary particle is equal to the kinetic energy of its inertial mass.
This means that the electric and magnetic component of the electromagnetic field of elementary particles and create the inertial properties of the field of matter from which the substance of the Universe.
Thus the theory of gravitation elementary particles was proved that the gravitational field of matter and the inertial properties of matter are created by the electromagnetic fields of elementary particles of which this substance consists. - PHYSICS of the 21st century have been disproved mathematical TALE about the "Higgs boson".
The elementary particles of which the substance of the Universe - are a form of electromagnetic field of matter and this matter does not require any mythical "Higgs boson", together with its fabulous interactions, invented the Standard model and quantum theory. Of course, you can invent a new form of matter, but it will be a new mathematical TALE.
8 Myths of the physics of elementary particles:
In the physics of the second half of the twentieth century, many mathematical fairy tales appeared for the achievements of science. Here are considered some mathematical tales relating to elementary particles.
8.1 Myths of the Standard Model of Elementary Particles
In 1964 Gell-Mann and Zweig independently proposed the hypothesis of the existence of quarks, of which, in their opinion, are hadrons. Were able to correctly describe the spectrum of the then known elementary particles, but invented quarks had to give a fractional electric charge that do not exist in nature. The leptons in this Quark model, which later became the Standard model of elementary particles, do NOT fit - was therefore declared to be true elementary particles, along with invented quarks. To explain the relationship of the quarks in the hadrons (baryons, mesons), it was suggested the existence in the nature of the strong interaction and its carriers - gluons. Gluons, as expected in the Quantum theory, gave a single spin; identity of particles and antiparticles and zero value of the rest mass like the photon. In fact, in nature there is no strong interaction the hypothetical quarks and nuclear forces of nucleons and a DIFFERENT concept.
This is how the list of "elementary" particles looks from the viewpoint of the Standard Model (the picture is taken from the world Wikipedia).
- out of 17 cubes, there were only four left in their places - this is less than 25 percent, and even then, only because they did not immediately fit into the quark model and they were forced to recognize elementary, along with fairy quarks.
- instead of gauge bosons - fantastic carriers of interactions (often fictitious) that violate the laws of nature, within the framework of Quantum
theory, in nature there are simply vector mesons (there is such a grouping of elementary particles with an integer spin different from zero), and they have been discovered for more than ten, and even more will be discovered: no fantastic interactions will be sufficient to attribute to them all the vector mesons, to which the number is INFINITY.
- that with regard to the photon, then the carrier of the electromagnetic interactions of the electromagnetic fields of elementary particles are
these electromagnetic fields themselves, in full accordance with classical electrodynamics - SCIENCE.
It's been 50 years. Fictitious quarks have not been found in nature and invented for us a new mathematical story called "Confinement". A thinking person can easily see in that the blatant mockery of the fundamental law of nature - the law of conservation of energy. The thinking man will make that, but storytellers got staged their excuse why in nature there are no quarks in a free kind.
Introduced gluons were also NOT found in nature. The fact that a single spin can have in nature only vector mesons (and one of the excited States of mesons), but each vector meson has a antiparticle. - Therefore, the vector meson candidates in the "gluons" did not fit, they do not assign the role of a fictional carriers of the strong interaction. Remains the first nine excited States of the mesons, but 2 of them are contrary to the most Standard model of elementary particles and their existence in nature, the Standard model does not recognize, and the rest studied by physics well, and give them a fabulous gluons will not work. There is the last option: to give gluon bound state of a pair of leptons (muons or Tau-leptons) but the decay can be calculated.
So gluons are not be in the nature, and the fictitious quarks and the strong interaction are not be in the nature too . The supporters of the Standard model of elementary particles do not understand you know - that's just sickening to admit the wrongness of what has been for decades. And so we see all new mathematical pseudo-scientific tales, one of which is: "string theory".
8.2 Fundamental Interactions of Elementary Particles
Studying the nature, physics experimentally established the presence of electromagnetic fields created by elementary particles and the interactions of these electromagnetic fields, as well as the presence of gravitational fields created by the electromagnetic fields of elementary particles and the interactions of these gravitational fields. All other types of interactions that really exist in nature must be reduced to two types of fundamental interactions: electromagnetic interactions and gravitational interactions.
The assertion that it is the reliably known about the existence of four types of fundamental interactions is a trick: giving out what is desired for reality. In nature there are NO quarks, gluons and their fantastic strong interaction, but in nature there are nuclear forces, and these are different concepts. Also, the existence of a fantastic weak interaction in nature is not proved. As for the fabulous electromagnetic interaction and electroweak interaction - this is the result of mathematical manipulation on the laws of nature.
8.3 Elementary particles and gauge bosons
In the physics of elementary particles, gauge bosons are bosons that act as carriers of the fundamental interactions of nature. More precisely, elementary particles, whose interactions are described by the gauge theory, act on each other by exchanging gauge bosons, usually as virtual particles. (Quote from World Wikipedia)
But the reality is completely different. The vector mesons that are pinned to us as calibration bosons of fictitious interactions are ordinary elementary particles with integer spin, and their existence in a fantastic virtual state is forbidden by the laws of nature. Each vector meson necessarily has its own antiparticle, therefore elementary particles with unit spin and zero electric charge, which do not have an antiparticle, that could be given out as gluons, is not can exist in nature. Knowing this information, storytellers from science can rewrite their "theories", removing from them the mandatory requirement of the absence of an antiparticle, but this still does not save the mathematical tales from inevitable bankruptcy.
As for the two fundamental interactions that really exist in nature:
- Electromagnetic interaction
- Gravitational interaction
They do not have fabulous carriers.
8.4 Elementary particles and "string theory"
In the early 1970-ies in the quantum theory there appeared a new trend: "string theory" that studies the dynamics of interaction is not point particles but one-dimensional extended objects (quantum strings). An attempt was made to combine the ideas of quantum mechanics and relativity theory based on the primacy of quantum theory. It was expected that on its basis will be the theory of quantum gravity.
A few quotes from Wikipedia: string Theory based on the hypothesis that all elementary particles and their fundamental interactions are the result of vibrations and interactions of submicroscopic quantum strings on scales of order the Planck length 10-35 m. This approach, on the one hand, avoids these difficulties of quantum field theory, like renormalization, on the other hand, leads to a deeper view on the structure of matter and space-time.
... Despite mathematical rigor, and integrity theory, has not been found yet options experimental confirmation of string theory. With respect to the description of hadronic physics, but not quite coming up to that, theory was in some sort of vacuum experimental descriptions of all interactions.
One of the main problems when trying to describe the procedure of reduction of string theories in dimension from 26 or 10 to the low-energy physics in dimension 4 is that a large number of possible compactifications of the extra dimensions into manifolds Calabi - Yau and orbifold, which is likely to be marginal cases private spaces Calabi - Yau. A large number of possible solutions since the late 1970s and early 1980s, he created a problem called "the problem of landscape", in this connection, some scientists doubt whether the merits of string theory's scientific status.
And now a clarification:
Supporters of string theory, comparing it with the Standard model of elementary particles and agitating for string theory claim that the Standard model has 19 free parameters for fitting experimental data, and the string theory they are not.
- Electromagnetic fields of elementary particles do not occur as a result of the submicroscopic quantum fluctuations of strings and their interactions are not the product of the interaction of these strings.
- The main difficulty of quantum "theory" is the absence in nature of carriers of invented her interactions, and ignoring the fundamental law of nature - the law of conservation of energy by virtual particles As for renormalization, one its necessity indicates the fallacy of this "theory". Went and rewrote the result of the laws of nature - and this is for science.
- The hadron physics is not in the nature, because in nature there are no hadrons. In nature quarks with the gluons, and there are just elementary particles and fundamental interactions.
- The space is with a dimension of 26 or 10 and why are not 11 or 25. By manipulating the dimension of the space, you can build as many "theories", but is the mathematical fairy. And the introduction to string theories of multidimensional objects is certainly of the mathematical world of fairy TALES.
- The theories of relativity from physics, too, there are questions: special theory of relativity (str) inside the elementary particles does not work, and the gravitational field the General theory of relativity (GTR) nothing creates except the fabulous "black holes", "created" the same field and thus contrary to the principle of causality. - Elementary particles create a superposition of vector gravitational fields, not some abstract mathematical gravitational field of General relativity.
- Well quantum "theory of gravity" already do not need to build - developed SCIENTIFIC THEORY of GRAVITY, ELEMENTARY PARTICLES of which the substance of the Universe. And gravitons are not found in nature.
- Predicted string "theories" tachyons - the particles moving at a speed exceeding the speed of light in vacuum, and contrary to the principle of causality, exist only in such "theories" and in the imagination of their authors and supporters.
- Predicted string "theories" the multidimensionality of the Universe is contradicts the experimental data. Physics has established the existence of three spatial dimensions, and albert Einstein to them in the special theory of relativity (running everywhere) added a fourth imaginary dimension is time. All other dimensions of the Universe is the product of the imagination of some "theorists" who puts their desires above the laws of nature.
They missed something. When the Standard model of elementary particles was called the quark model, she had only 3 quarks. But as for the development of the Standard model was required the increase the number of quarks up to 6 (bottom, top, strange, charmed, charming, true) and for each hypothetical quark also to give the three colors (r, g, b) – get 6×3=18 the hypothetical particles. To them still need to add the 8 gluons. The model is expanded to fit new experimental data. But the introduction of the fabulous colors of the quarks was not enough and some are already talking about a complex structure of quarks. Other proponents of the Standard model claim that the quarks are a form of field matter.
The same fate awaits the "theory" of strings. First, her supporters telling mathematical tales, passing them off as the highest achievement of science, and most people stupidly believe it. New mathematical quantum tale, giving her the last word of physics, teaching students naively believe that they are getting "genuine knowledge". The new tale will be to "research" the title of the Nobel Prize in physics, as it was with mathematical tale of the "Higgs Boson". New quantum tale will develop, to grow, and will require the parameters to fit new experimental data. And when this mathematical tale also comes to a STANDSTILL and will go BANKRUPT – will compose the new tale. And only then was the substitution of the old bankrupt quantum mathematical tale which can no longer control the minds of people, in a new similar tale. – One CHIMERA switched to another CHIMERA. Mankind received a "science" which it is worthy. That's just for PHYSICS this literary work is unnecessarily.
Every student who has studied geometry and mechanics knows that the number of dimensions is equal to three. The Einstein for that as a fourth imaginary dimension in the framework of the special theory of relativity, added time. Other measurements from the space around us are NOT. With regard to the space of General relativity, it exists only in the virtual world of this theory, as the virtual space of the special theory of relativity may be used where this theory WORKS.
Adult uncles with "scientific" degrees is discover in space in 3-9 times more measurements than are actually present, probably firmly forgetting what they were taught in school. It turns out that for the nature of space is the one dimension, and for supporters of string theory – is the another much larger. Are they gods that can afford to creating their own space under their "theoretical" build. Well, if they are NOT gods, then just STORYTELLERS from science, retreat from the imminent bankruptcy of Quantum pseudo-theory. The desire by all means to stay in the "science" is clear, but maybe it would be fairer and wiser to part with this collection of mathematical TALES, and send it to the archive of the history of development of physics, like the last DELUSION, and by to sit at the Desk with students and relearn the New PHYSICS, which is very disgusting. Remember the tale about the naked king and how it ended for king - the modern reality is nothing like?
To summarize: for the clever words and complicated mathematics "of string theory" is hiding pseudo-mathematical TALE, built on false foundations.
8.5 Fabulous characters in the physics of elementary particles of the 20th century
In physics of the 20th century, many mathematical fairy tales appeared, and with them fairy-tale characters. Some of the fabulous characters in physics were invented earlier and eventually fell into the physics of the 20th century. Till these characters were considered as hypotheses - everything remained within the framework of science. After all, his majesty the experiment, which is the criterion of truth in physics, can choose from only a plurality of hypotheses only one, and maybe none. Well, when they started mass-punching "theories" (for example, one theory of gravity has already invented about thirty pieces), giving out their beliefs for the truth - the science called PHYSICS has ended.
Let's consider some fairy-tale characters of the physics of elementary particles of the 20th century in the alphabetical order of the Russian language - the language of Lomonosov and Mendeleev.
- Accelerons - are hypothetical subatomic particles that integrally connect the newly discovered neutrino mass with the dark energy assumed to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
Theoretically the neutrino - is influenced by a new force arising as a result of their interaction with accelerograms. Dark energy leads to the fact that the universe is trying to divide neutrinos. (Quote from World Wikipedia). - That's just a fabulous "dark" energy in nature and no "expansion" of the universe physicist did not establish.
- Axino - is a hypothetical neutral elementary particle with spin 1/2, predicted by certain theories of elementary particle physics. - Proof of the existence of a physicist does not have.
- The Higgs boson - is an imaginary particle, the quantum of the imaginary Higgs field, which necessarily arises in the Standard Model due to the imaginary Higgs mechanism of an imaginary spontaneous breaking of imaginary electroweak symmetry. And all this IMAGINABLE to us unsubstantially try to shove under see "the achievements of science." Under the guise of an allegedly open Higgs boson, we are slipped with a vector meson - this is a SELL.
- Virtual Particles - A virtual particle in quantum field theory is understood as an abstract object possessing the quantum numbers of one of the really existing elementary particles for which the connection between energy and momentum is not fulfilled. - This fictional object contradicts: the law of conservation of energy, the law of conservation of momentum, classical electrodynamics, field theory of elementary particles. Virtual particles are a mathematical TALE.
- Geydzhino - hypothetical particles predicted by the theory of gauge invariance and the theory of supersymmetry, fantastic superpartners of nonequilibrium gauge bosons.
- Geon - is an electromagnetic or gravitational wave that is held in a limited area by the gravitational attraction of the energy of its own field. - Another fairy tale about black holes, applied to the microworld.
- Gluons - are fictional carriers of fictional strong interaction.
- Graviton and gravitino - are fictional carriers of gravitational interaction within the framework of unsubstantiated statements of the quantum theory. Graviton and gravitino contradict the theory of gravity of elementary particles.
- Dilaton - In theoretical physics, the dilaton is usually referred to the theoretical scalar field - the way a photon is related to an electromagnetic field. Also in string theory, the dilaton - a particle of a scalar field φ - is a scalar field that logically follows from the Klein-Gordon equation and always appears along with gravity. - Existence in nature is NOT proven.
- Spirits - are fictitious fields and the corresponding particles introduced in the theory of gauge fields in order to reduce contributions from nonphysical timelike and longitudinal states of gauge bosons. In non-Abelian gauge theories that have physical applications, such as quantum chromodynamics, spirits are necessary in order to eliminate contradictions in the application of perturbation theory. (A small piece from Wikipedia) - You can invent anything, but you do not have proofs of the existence of a physicist.
- Isotopic spin - by isotopic spin (isospin) is meant a quantum number that determines the number of charge states of hadrons. - The field theory of elementary particles systematizes elementary particles not by the proximity of rest masses - but by quantum numbers. It looks like an isotopic spin, but NOT so.
- Calibration bosons - are bosons, which, in the framework of quantum theory, are attributed to the ability to be carriers of fundamental interactions (mostly invented by quantum theory). - That's just the fundamental interactions that really exist in nature, no fabulous carriers are needed.
- Quantum strings - in string theory, infinitely thin one-dimensional objects 10-35 m long, whose oscillations produce the whole variety of elementary particles. - Another mathematical tale. Elementary particles of matter have a different structure.
- Quarks - are hypothetical elementary particles in quantum chromodynamics, considered as an integral part of hadrons. It is assumed that there are 6 different kinds of quarks, for which the notion of "aroma" is introduced. The existence of quarks in nature has not yet been established by physics - we are constantly being pinned down by tales with allegedly observed traces of quarks.
Leptokvark – are a group of hypothetical particles carrying information between quarks and leptons of a certain generation, through the exchange of which quarks and leptons can interact and pass into each other. Leptoquarks represent a color triplet of gauge bosons carrying both leptonic and baryon charges. (Quote from Wikipedia) - There is no limit to the rampage of fantasy in creating another pseudo "theory".
- A magnetic monopole - is a hypothetical elementary particle possessing a nonzero magnetic charge-a point source of a radial magnetic field. It is claimed that the magnetic charge is the source of the static magnetic field in the same way as the electric charge is the source of the static electric field. - Not found in nature, but the permanent magnetic fields of elementary particles are created differently.
- Maximon (or plankeon) - is a hypothetical particle whose mass is (possibly up to a dimensionless coefficient of the order of unity) Planck mass - supposedly the maximum possible mass in the mass spectrum of elementary particles. - The physicist does not have proofs of its existence in nature.
- Minimon - is a hypothetical particle with the minimum possible mass (as opposed to maximon), not equal to 0. - Such an elementary particle, actually existing in nature, is an electronic neutrino, and it is not necessary to compose tales and give them out for the achievements of science.
- Neutralino - is one of the hypothetical particles predicted by theories including supersymmetry. - These are only those "theories" from the world of mathematical fairy tales, like supersymmetry.
- Parton - is a point-like component of hadrons, manifested in experiments on deeply inelastic scattering of hadrons by leptons and other hadrons. - In physics, this is called antinodes of standing waves of an alternating electromagnetic field of elementary particles. Their number coincides with the number of fantastic quarks in the hadron.
- The Planck particle - is a hypothetical elementary particle, defined as a black hole, in which the Compton wavelength coincides with the Schwarzschild radius. - The theory of gravity of elementary particles has shown the scientific inconsistency of mathematical fairy tales about "black holes", especially in the microcosm.
- Prions - are hypothetical fundamental particles from which the fundamental particles of the Standard Model (quarks with leptons) supposedly consist. - But there are NO quarks in nature, and fairy bricks are NOT required for leptons (which do not fit into the quark model, and according to this recognized elementary as well as quarks).
- Saksion - another fabulous "superpartner". - The spectrum of elementary particles is determined by a set of quantum numbers, determined simultaneously by quantum mechanics and classical electrodynamics, in which there is no place for any "superpartners".
- Weak interaction - is one of the hypothetical fundamental interactions postulated by quantum theory. It is assumed that the weak interaction is much weaker than the strong and electromagnetic interactions, but much stronger than the gravitational one. In the 80-ies of the XX century, it was stated that weak and electromagnetic interactions are different manifestations of electroweak interaction. - The physicist still does not have proofs of existence in nature of Weak interaction. And the fact that the really existing vector mesons exist in nature as carriers of a fictitious weak interaction is a SELL.
- Strong interaction - The fictional interaction of fictional quarks in the framework of the unproven assertions of the Standard Model. In nature, there is not a strong interaction, but nuclear forces, and these are different concepts.
- Sterile neutrinos - are another TALE. In nature, there are kinds of neutrinos in exact correspondence with the spectrum of elementary particles.
- Oddity - By strangeness S is meant the quantum number of elementary particles, introduced to describe their specific properties. Strangeness was introduced to explain that some elementary particles are always born in pairs, and also to explain the anomalously long lifetime of some elementary particles. - The field theory of elementary particles does not find such a quantum number for elementary particles - they simply do not need it.
- Spermion - is a hypothetical spin-0 particle, a superpartner (or particle) of its associated fermion. Sfermions are bosons (scalar bosons), possess the same quantum numbers. May be the product of the decay of the fabulous Higgs boson. - The spectrum of elementary particles is completely determined by a set of quantum numbers. These quantum numbers have variable electromagnetic fields of elementary particles, and independent sets of quantum numbers exist only in mathematical fairy tales.
- Techniquarks - are hypothetical fundamental particles of which the Higgs boson supposedly consists. - It's only in nature there is not a Higgs boson, but an ordinary vector meson, which we are trying to blow into as a Higgs boson.
- Friedmont - is a hypothetical particle whose outer mass and dimensions are small, and the internal dimensions and mass can outnumber the external ones many times due to the effects of curvature of space in the general theory of relativity. - The elementary particles is not create the gravitational fields of the general theory of relativity.
- Chameleon - is a hypothetical elementary particle, a scalar boson with nonlinear self-action, which makes the effective mass of a particle dependent on the environment. Such a particle can have a small mass in the intergalactic space and a large one in experiments on the Earth. The chameleon is a possible carrier of dark energy and an integral part of dark matter, a possible cause of accelerating the expansion of the universe. (Quote from Wikipedia) - The rest mass of an elementary particle depends on external electromagnetic fields, and the rest is solid TALES.
- Higgsino - is a fabulous superpartner of the fabulous Higgs boson.
- Chardzhino - in the physics of elementary particles, a hypothetical particle that refers to the eigenstate of a charged superpartner, that is, an electrically charged fermion (with spin 1/2), recently predicted by super symmetry. It is a linear combination of charged wine and higgsino. (Quote from Wikipedia) - You can invent everything that comes to mind, that's just the proof of ZERO.
- Parity - is the property of a physical quantity to retain its sign (or change to the opposite one) for some discrete transformations. Parity is most important for quantum physics, where it is one of the main characteristics of the wave function. Accordingly, the concept of parity is transferred to the particle (atom, nucleus), which is characterized by this wave function. Quotation from Wikipedia) - Only quantum "theory" is screwed up, and wave (quantum) mechanics is responsible only for the part that occurs inside the elementary particles, therefore some of its statements need additional confirmation outside the scope of quantum mechanics.
- Electromagnetic interaction - is a fictitious interaction within the framework of mathematical manipulations of the quantum "theory", with attempts to create quantum electrodynamics. - In fact, in nature there are interactions of electromagnetic fields of elementary particles, described by Classical electrodynamics - SCIENCE.
- Electroweak interaction - In the quantum theory, electroweak interaction is a general description of two of the four alleged fundamental interactions: electromagnetic interaction and the weak interaction postulated by the quantum theory. - In nature there is no weak interaction, no electromagnetic interaction, but there are electromagnetic fields and their interactions, described by Classical electrodynamics.
- Electroweak bosons - are fictional carriers of a fictitious electroweak interaction, in the quality of which some vector mesons, with a single spin, are trying to blow into us.
You see, what a rich imagination of those who are engaged in science, that's only in nature it is not. In the twentieth century, great hopes were placed on Quantum theory and the Standard Model, they were considered almost the highest achievement of science - but as it turned out, nature is arranged differently, and henceforth a place for these fairy-tale characters in the archive of the history of physics development, in the section entitled "Misconceptions In physics, "along with a lovely company from the Caloric and electrical fluid.
9 Elementary particles different
Supporters of a quantum theory are sure that in experiments on scattering traces of quarks in a proton are observed. - But it is one of possible explanations.
Let’s take number of hypothetical quarks in a hadron and we will divide it into two - the main quantum number (L) elementary particles in the field theory will turn out. And it not is just coincidence. Matter in the following: as in the elementary particles the variation electromagnetic field rotates - in them there will be standing waves (it is described in wave theories). And in standing waves there are sites with the maximal intensity (crest), but also there are points in which intensity is always equal to zero (clusters). If to consider a standing wave from the point of view of weight density, then it mathematically can be broken conditionally into several equal parts (equally to number of crests) - and it is equal to number of hypothetical quarks in hadrons.
From here one more explanation of experiments follows: In experiments on scattering standing waves of a variation electromagnetic field in the elementary particles are observed. The impossibility of their splitting into separate sites is also explained by it - the electromagnetic field is continuous and is not scattered on chips, and will be transformed under laws of the nature.
The most interesting, for the physics, the elementary particle now is the electronic neutrino.
The physics established:
- communication of an electronic neutrino with red shift,
- communication of an electronic neutrino with space background microwave radiation, historically, by mistake, the called relict radiation,
- contribution of an electronic neutrino to earthquakes, eruptions of volcanoes, tectonic activity and heat flux, coming from Earth subsoil,
- contribution of an electronic neutrino to the dark substance of the Universe which is inaccurately called by a dark matter.
What else secrets are hidden by this easiest elementary particle with the nonzero size of a rest-mass - time will show.
10 New physics: Elementary particles is the result
I did not consider all the theories and theoretical constructs concerning elementary particles. Remain unaddressed:
"Scientific" fecundity of some authors of mathematical stories and models is very high, and to spend time on the analysis of their literary work masquerading as science - is MEANINGLESS. And in General, publication in publishing, earning money on science, is not evidence that we face a SCIENTIFIC WORK. Published by those who have the money – capitalism is in action.
- some of the scientific theory (the Wave theory of the structure of elementary particles) that are better viewed on the websites of the authors
- theoretical constructions do not correspond to the nature of quantum theory (superstring theory, M-theory, etc.) in quantum physics surroundings STALLED my math fairy TALES
- pseudoscientific models that simulate science (such as the Theory of infinite nesting of matter), for abstract ideas, buzz words and often complex mathematics hides the poor physics.
The field theory of elementary particles, no fundamental differences with the wave theory of elementary particles, as it can be considered as a further development of the wave direction in physics. If his time at the wave directions have the strength to resist the creation of a monopoly for truth from a quantum theory and Standard model of elementary particles - now in textbooks of physics would be written completely different.
In the 20th century there were high hopes for "quantum theory" and "the Standard model of elementary particles", the latter was declared almost the highest achievement of science that has finally revealed all, in the standard model of elementary particles. But as it turns out, nature is arranged differently than claimed these collections of mathematical fairy tales. Quarks and gluons have not been found is neither in nature nor in accelerators, or any energy - and without these building blocks from the Foundation of the standard model of particle physics just a fairy TALE. Also in nature was not found, the carriers of interactions, postulated in quantum theory, and the number of fundamental interactions was much smaller, burying the quantum "theory". Well, the tale about virtual particles, invented to fill the lack in the nature fairy vector fairy interactions quantum "theory", now also collapsed. The law of conservation of energy, so unloved quantum "theory" and its "Standard" model of elementary particles, acted in nature before the advent of these collections of mathematical fairy tales, and continue to operate after their inevitable demise.
Came the 21st century and physics has changed. Now the Field theory of elementary particles describes the micro world on the basis of really existing in the nature of the fields, remaining within the operating in the nature of laws - as it should be in science. She became one of the largest discoveries of the New physics of the 21st century and the biggest opening for theoretical physics of the early 21st century, is the successful completion of part of works on creation of field Theory, which lasted more than 100 years that led to the construction of a Scientific picture of the Microcosm. As it turned out, the Microcosm is the world of the dipole electromagnetic fields, the existence of which 20th century physics did not know. Added to this is the theory of gravitation elementary particles, which established the electromagnetic nature of gravitation and buried a bunch of mathematical fairy tales of the 20th century ("theories" of gravity, "super-gravity", a story about the "Higgs boson"), including the tale of "Black holes". Research in the field of electron neutrinos found:
We will have many a thrilling and interesting in the Microcosm. Physics is the science of nature, received its name from the Greek word "φύσις", which means "nature".
- the primary natural energy source of earthquakes, volcanic activity, tectonic activity, geothermal activity, heat flow coming from the bowels of the Earth,
- natural sources are the so-called "relic radiation",
- another natural mechanism of the red shift,
- buried mathematical tale of "the Big Bang".